US national study reveals disparities in general and behavioral health care receipt, suggests telehealth is a vital bridge to care for traditionally underserved groups during the pandemic
A new study published today in Preventive Medicine found that, during the first year of the pandemic, Hispanic/Latinx individuals and lower-income individuals were less likely to receive needed health care when compared to White individuals and people with higher incomes. Led by researchers at the Alcohol Research Group (ARG), a program of the Public Health Institute, in collaboration with RTI International, the study examined whether different groups were more or less likely to receive general and behavioral health care they needed, to delay care, and to use telehealth.
- 37% of respondents wanting behavioral health care (e.g., mental health counseling or alcohol counseling) did not receive it.
- 48% of respondents delayed getting care, largely due to pandemic-related issues like medical office closures, lockdowns, or fear of infection.
- Some groups delayed needed care due to cost (44% of uninsured persons and 25% of persons whose work hours or work pay was reduced during the pandemic delayed needed care).
- For Hispanic/Latinx respondents, receipt of needed general and behavioral health care was 20 percentage points lower and 18 percentage points lower, respectively, than for White respondents.
- The difference in access to health care for low-income groups compared to high-income groups was 23 percentage points lower for behavioral health care and 13 percentage points lower for general health care.
When examining telehealth utilization, which included connecting with a health care provider by video, phone, or email, some traditionally underserved groups reported high rates of telehealth use.
Nearly all Hispanic/Latinx respondents (98%) who received any behavioral health care during this period used telehealth for their care; this was greater than White and Black respondents. Also, lower-income and higher-income groups were very similar in their use of telehealth for behavioral health care (88% and 86%, respectively).
“Before the pandemic, there were concerns that telehealth expansion could exacerbate inequities in health care access due to factors like the digital divide,” explained lead study author Nina Mulia “So these findings are very encouraging.”
“The higher-than-expected use of telehealth for some groups may be the result of new telehealth policies during the pandemic, such as reimbursing providers for telephone visits and supporting telehealth services at clinics that serve lower-income, rural and tribal communities. These provisions were temporarily set in place at the start of the pandemic and have recently been extended until the end of 2024 under the new Omnibus Appropriations Bill.”
Findings might also reflect the fact that the survey occurred one year into the pandemic, Mulia suggested. At that point, there may have been enough time for telehealth to spread across the population. Some health care providers were already using telehealth before COVID, but other providers have needed time to implement these services and get their patients engaged with phone and video visits. It may be that both the policies and the timing of the study account for the unexpected results.
While the telehealth findings were promising for many groups, several disparities were observed. Black respondents reported similar rates of general telehealth use compared to White people but showed lower use of telehealth for behavioral health care such as mental health counseling. Rural residents were also less likely than urban residents to use telehealth for behavioral health care; however, for general care, telehealth use was identical across both groups at 54%.
“Our findings underscore the need to identify which policies helped most in expanding telehealth to groups who typically don’t have good access to health care, and to work to make these policies permanent,” added Mulia.
“Everyone deserves access to general and behavioral health care when they need it. If we eliminate the very policies that increase access for underserved groups, then we would be taking a big step backwards for health equity. This could also have serious health consequences for many persons who rely on telehealth as a bridge to care.”
Researchers used data from the 2019-2020 US National Alcohol Survey (NAS) and its COVID follow-up survey (conducted from January 30 to March 28, 2021). Telehealth services were defined as health care, mental health counseling, or help for their drinking provided by a health care provider, mental health counselor, or substance use counselor via electronic messaging or email, phone or video chat.
The study “Inequitable Access to General and Behavioral Healthcare during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Role for Telehealth?” by Nina Mulia, Yu Ye, Thomas K. Greenfield, Priscilla Martinez, Deidre Patterson, William C. Kerr, Katherine J. Karriker-Jaffe is available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2023.107426
Support for this paper was provided by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) under award numbers P50AA005595 to W.C. Kerr (ARG); K01AA024832 to P. Martinez (ARG); R01AA029812 to K. Karriker-Jaffe (RTI) at the National Institutes of Health. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.
About the Alcohol Research Group
For over 60 years, the Alcohol Research Group (ARG) has been actively engaged in critically needed alcohol- and other drug-related public health research. We study drinking and other drug use and how these and other factors such as gender, race/ethnicity, sexual identity, socioeconomic disparities, and environmental differences affect health. ARG is also home to the NIAAA-funded National Alcohol Research Center and training program. Further research on this topic is currently being conducted in the Center’s projects focused on alcohol services and high intensity drinking. Please visit arg.org.
ARG is a program of the Public Health Institute, an independent nonprofit organization, dedicated to promoting health, well-being and quality of life for people throughout California, across the nation and around the world. Please visit phi.org.
About RTI International
RTI International is an independent, nonprofit research institute dedicated to improving the human condition. Clients rely on us to answer questions that demand an objective and multidisciplinary approach — one that integrates expertise across the social and laboratory sciences, engineering and international development. We believe in the promise of science, and we are inspired every day to deliver on that promise for the good of people, communities and businesses around the world. For more information, visit www.rti.org.